Breweries in Cumbria
In Cumbria we are lucky in that as well as the Jennings brewery in Cockermouth, which supplies a variety of beers to many of the pubs and hotels in the area, we also have lots of microbreweries, several of which have won a variety of awards by the local branches of CAMRA – the Campaign for real Ale. Jennings Brewery now has a tearoom/shop and holds regular brewery tours.
Brewery List :
How beer is made :
Beer is produced by the fermentation of sugars derived from starch-based material – the most common being malted barley.
The basic ingredients of the vast majority of beers are malted barley, hops, water and yeast. Hops are used to impart bitterness, flavor and aroma to beer, and also for their natural antiseptic qualities. The yeast in beer causes fermentation.
Beer uses varying ingredients, production methods and traditions. The type of yeast and production method may be used to classify beer into ale or lager.
The essential stages of brewing are mashing, sparging, boiling, fermentation, and packaging.
Mashing manipulates the temperature of a mixture of water and a starch source (known as mash) in order to convert starches to fermentable sugars. The mash is raised to a desired temperature and left at that temperature for a period of time. During this stage, enzymes, alpha and beta amylase, primarily break down the long dextrins that are present in the mash into simpler fermentable sugars such as glucose, in the starch source produce compounds needed for fermentation and further mashing, including the fermentable sugars.
Sparging (also known as lautering) extracts the fermentable liquid, known as wort, from the mash. The brewer also adds water to the lauter-tun and lets it flow through the mash and collects it as well. This rinses fermentable liquid from the grain in the mash and allows the brewer to gather as much of the fermentable liquid from the mash as possible. The leftover grain is not further used in making the beer.
Boiling sterilizes the wort and increases the concentration of sugar in the wort. The wort collected from sparging is put in a kettle and boiled, usually for about one hour. During boiling, water in the wort evaporates, but the sugars and other components of the wort remain; this allows more efficient use of the starch sources in the beer. Hops are added during boiling in order to extract bitterness, flavor and aroma from them.
Fermentation uses yeast to turn the sugars in wort to alcohol and carbon dioxide. During fermentation, the wort becomes beer. Once the boiled wort is cooled and in a fermenter, yeast is propagated in the wort and it is left to ferment, which requires a week to months depending on the type of yeast and strength of the beer. In addition to producing alcohol, fine particulate matter suspended in the wort settles during fermentation. Once fermentation is complete, the yeast also settles, leaving the beer clear.
Packaging, the fifth and final stage of the brewing process, prepares the beer for distribution and consumption. During packaging, beer is put into the vessel from which it will be served – a keg, cask, can or bottle. Beer is carbonated in its package, either by forcing carbon dioxide into the beer or by “natural carbonation.” Naturally carbonated beers have a small amount of sugar added to them during packaging. This causes a short period of fermentation which produces carbon dioxide to carbonate the beer.
Traditional types of English beer include bitter, mild, stout, porter, India pale ale, Brown ale, and Old ale.
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